Posted by: dompanaligan | April 19, 2010


“These efforts culminated in the Kyoto Protocol… maintains similar objectives to the UNFCCC, which includes “the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”” (Long 43-44). My research focus is about how global warming is affecting government actions around the world, and the Kyoto Protocol is one of a few prime examples of actions being taken to combat the affects of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol convention took place on December 11, 1997 and due to the fact that the protocol must be ratified by 55 nations in order to be entered into force, the Kyoto Protocol was not entered into force until February 16, 2005. The criteria in the Kyoto Protocol requires all nations who ratified to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%, 1990 being their baseline of measurement. The 5.2% decrease must be met by at least 2008, 2012 being the latest. It is interesting how the United States is taking actions to reduce greenhouse emissions, yet the United States has not yet ratified the Kyoto Protocol.

“Carbon dioxide is a naturally occuring gas that is well blended into the atmosphere around the world… If California does something and China and India don’t, then what we do is virtually useless” (Colin 5). This is a quote by Myron Ebell who is the director of energy and global warming policy at the Competitive Enterprise Institute. Myron’s statement displays how serious a matter our society defines global warming as, and also displays the existing skepticsim that global warming can be prevented. In a way, Myron is correct because China and India have some of the worlds greatest population, and a good amount of carbon dioxide emissions comes directly from the existence of humans. Myron’s statement exemplifies why such protocols such as the Kyoto Protocol are very crucial, because the world has no choice but to work together in order to prevent global warming or even slow down the process.

Posted by: dompanaligan | April 14, 2010


Global warming has become a highly debated subject around the world. Scientifically, global warming is the rising of the average annual temperature. This rise in temperature is due to the amounts of sunlight being trapped in the earth’s atmosphere. The earth’s atmosphere is composed of millions of tiny particles known as green house gases, and the more green house gases there are lingering in the atmosphere, the more of the earth’s sunlight is deflected back to the earth’s surface. There are quite a few types of green house gases such as nitrogen and nitrous oxide, but the one green house gas that continues to increase in the earth’s atmospheric composition is carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is release from activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and the human existence.

It is just recently that the voice of global warming has projected loud enough to be heard. Of course there are skeptics that believe that global warming is a misinterpretation of data, or global warming is just apart of earth’s natural cycle. Then, there are those who acknowledge the possible consequences climate change can produce. Government officials are now taking action towards preventing global warming, or at least slowing down it’s process. The most historical global warming meeting of countries was the United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change held in New York on May 9, 1992. In this convention industrial countries took fire for being the biggest contributors of the increasing amount of carbon dioxide emissions.

“Developed nations committed to a voluntary goal of returning emissions to 1990 levels by 2000 and providing technical and financial assistance to developing and transitional nations.”

This action by developed nations to help decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere has become evident in the United States. The going green movement is gaining momentum and according to the journal article “Confronting Warming” found in the CQ researcher online database,

“The Obama administration promises to be far more aggressive in addressing global warming than the skeptical Bush White House. Even though the issue is coming to the fore in Washington, states and cities that have filled the policy vacuum in recent years pledge to stay vigilant in addressing the issue.”

Global warming, which has once been an overlooked idea, is now causing the world to come together and take action for a central cause, which is to protect the earth from the possible effects of climate change.

Posted by: dompanaligan | April 12, 2010

Global Warming Terms

My topic as a whole is global warming. My focus goes deeper into global warming and leans more toward how climate change is affecting governmental policy around the world. There are many terms or ideas that are common throughout most of my sources that are universal, but they mean something different in terms of global warming. I’ve came up with a few terms that I believe are important and should be defined in terms of global warming in order to understand my focus better:

Carbon Dioxide: In all of my sources the term carbon dioxide has been mention either once or numerous times. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and scientifically is thought of to be one of the main reasons why the earths temperature is increasing. The more carbon dioxide there is the atmosphere, the more sun rays are reflected back towards the earth’s surface, slowly but surely increasing the earth’s average annual temperature. Some examples of carbon dioxide being used in my sources include:

“The majority is absorbed by molecules of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcrabons, and ozone… trapping radiation than other gases.”

“Growing concern about climate change has led states and cities to adopt new policies to try to conserve energy and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenouse gases.”

The term carbon dioxide relates to my focus because new policies nationally and internationally are being introduced in order to try and reduce the amount of CO2 emissions and CO2 in the atmosphere.

Economy: Economy is not really a term that is used in the text, but is more of an idea throughout the text. As I mentioned in prior blog posts, many new policies are being put into order, especially by state legislation. The going green movement has become strongly influenced in government and our society. People are spending more money on things that will make their lives more environmentally friendly. Tax payers are paying more money to make their communities more environmentally friendly. One would think that going green is something our society is not willing to pay for due to our current economic recession. Many arguments have been made that global warming would be a big hurt to the worlds economy, while others argued more jobs will be created. Other arguments include:

“Others argue that the discipline of economics is at least uncertain as that of climate science and that no one can be certain of the costs of curtailing greenhouse gas production. It could, many suggest, yield a net benefit by improving energy efficiency.”

Polar Ice Caps: Another term that is commonly used throughout a lot of my sources is polar ice caps. This term is important because the melting of the polar ice caps is one of the main possible effects of global warming. The increase in the earth’s annual temperature will speed up the melting of the polar ice caps, eventually raising sea levels, and possible submerging many coastal cities.

“According to some scientists, melting glaciers and polar ice sheets would cause ocean levels to rise anywhere from 15 centimeters (6 inches) to 1 meter (3 feet) by the end of the 21st century, threatening the existence of coastal cities around the world.”

Posted by: dompanaligan | April 12, 2010

Source Synthesis

When I’m told to synthesis a text, I think of breaking down the text and identifying the key points the author is trying to get across. The two sources I chose to synthesis are global warming by Douglas Long, and Confronting Warming, an academic journal article from the CQ researcher web database. Both of these sources I believe have a lot of valuable information that I plan on using in my research project.

The first source I chose, Global Warming, by Douglas Long, is an insightful breakdown of what Global Warming is, and how it has affected the environment and the mindset of our society ever since the first time the words Global Warming were mentioned. The book starts off by explaining Global Warming and what is more or less causing the average annual temperatures to fluctuate. From what I see while I extract information from the sections of the book I think are important, the amount of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. These greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen, trap the suns rays in the atmosphere, allowing the earth’s surface temperature to be warm enough to support life. One thing about this source that I found has in common with not only the Confronting Warming article, but also most of my other sources is that Global Warming mentions the skepticism by scientist who believe climate change is apart of the earth’s natural cycle. What makes this source unique is that Global Warming actually mentions why greenhouse gases are beneficial to the earth’s atmosphere or how climate change may be occuring but is not neccesarily a high risk threat.

“Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature on Earth would be about 33 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit) colder and would be unable to support life as we know it.”

Following the first section of laying out the basics of Global Warming, my source Global Warming introduces information that has to do with my focus, which is Global Warming policies around the world. Ever since the climate change was voiced out loud enough to be heard by our national and international governments, a greater push has been made towards protecting out atmosphere. This source also explains how Global Warming has become political.

It is only fitting that I move on to discussing my second source I chose to synthesize, which is the journal article Confronting Warming from the online database CQ Researcher. Along with skepticism being an overlap in information of these two sources, both sources mention a lot of information about governmental policy towards Global Warming that are very similar. The main difference between the two sources is that Confronting Warming caters more toward governmental policy here in the United States. Also Confronting Warming contains more up to date information. There is a lot of information about new building codes in some states. Also there are a lot of new energy policies in some states which overlaps with information about the U.S. Energy policy in Global Warming.

One topic of information that overlaps in Confronting Global Warming and Global Warming is the affect that climate change has had and is having right now on our national and international economy. As most everyone knows by now, the United States is facing and economic recession. This puts a big split between those that advocate global warming and those that are not convinced it is happening. Skeptics claim that the new policies such as going green and making our nation more environmentally friendly is way too expensive for the United States to afford. Some scientist point out that dramatic affects of climate change may not be evident until hundreds of years in the future so acting now is irrelevant. Yet those advocating Global Warming policies claim that the going green movement will create thousands of jobs and spark the economy.

“More than 25,000 “green” jobs were available in the New York metropolitan area in 2006, the most of any metropolitan area in the country. Three of the top 10 cities were in California- totaling more than 45,000 jobs.”

It will be interesting to see in years following where our national economy will be. Til then let the feathers fly.

Posted by: dompanaligan | March 22, 2010

First try at a proposed thesis

I was not sure whether or not you wanted us to cite things on this post so I at least included in-text citations.

Global warming has been a lingering topic ever since the early 1960’s. It is just recently that new data is being taken into account and old data is surfacing, causing a mass hysteria in the mindset of our global society. According to my research, global warming or climate change is caused by sunlight entering the ozone layer and eventually reaching the surface. Through a natural cycle of the atmosphere known as the greenhouse effect, heat is released back into space, but that is all dependent on how much CO2 is in the atmosphere (Kunzig 49). This leads to the some of the proposed causes and affects of global warming. One of the main causes that are  common throughout most of my sources is human activities, particularly the burning of fossil fuels (Newton 7). Over the past few hundred years humans have become dependent on fossil fuels as their source of energy, rapidly increasing the CO2 composition of the atmosphere. Scientists have collected data and have predicted possible effects of global warming such as the polar ice caps melting at an increasing rate causing the sea level to rise and a drastic change in regional climates causing different weather patterns (Newton 11-12). Although much data has been brought to the table, there are skeptics that deny global warming is even taking place claiming that climate change is apart of earth’s natural cycle (Sim 40). This leads into my focus which is the measures being taken to prevent climate change or slow down the process, more specifically by governmental bodies and state legislation throughout the world. As I flipped through my sources and began the process of narrowing my thesis, I noticed that there are many actions that were taken and are also being taken right now by governments around the world. A prime example of a global effort being taken was the signing of the Kyoto Protocol by a collection of countries that agree to the stabilize the CO2 levels in the earth’s atmosphere. The prevention climate change is also plaguing the United States with the going green movement leading the charge. One of my journal articles titled “Confronting Warming”, which I predict will provide me with a lot of my information in my research paper, gives the current actions being taken by the United States Government and State Legislation in effort of combating global warming (CQ Researcher). It is interesting how global warming is causing a mass hysteria throughout the world, but is also causing us to come together in a joint effort to prevent climate change.

Posted by: dompanaligan | March 17, 2010

Blog Search

Searching for blogs was a lot more enjoyable than looking for journal articles or news articles. I found many blogs about global warming or blogs that had posts about global warming. I didn’t really find anything that would help narrow my focus. My focus leans more toward how global warming affects government action and state legislation. I only used two of the blog search engines provided on the home base which were and Most of the results I got were blogs explaining how our society can prevent global warming or how global warming is a hoax and a misconception by false science. The first blog I came across is called Skeptical Science Getting Skeptical About Global Warming Skepticism ( The blog basically explains how skepticism about science and more specifically about global warming is healthy. Anyone can post on the blog and people mainly post things such current events that contributes or down plays global warming. Also people post about other people’s post and support/or argue the information.

There was a post on the blog titled ‘CO2 Levels During the Late Ordovician’ posted by some John Cook and he or she makes a good claim about how although at high CO2 levels, a glaciation era still occured:

“One argument used against the warming effect of carbon dioxide is that millions of years ago, CO2 levels were higher during periods where large glaciers formed over the Earth’s poles. This argument fails to take into account that solar output was also lower during these periods. The combined effect of sun and CO2 show good correlation with climate (Royer 2006). The one period that until recently puzzled paleoclimatologists was the late Ordovician, around 444 million years ago. At this time, CO2 levels were very high, around 5600 parts per million (in contrast, current CO2 levels are 389 parts per million). However, glaciers were so far-reaching during the late Ordovician, it coincided with one of the largest marine mass extinction events in Earth history. How did glaciation occur with such high CO2 levels? Recent data has revealed CO2 levels at the time of the late Ordovician ice age were not that high after all.”

Although this pertains nothing to what I want to narrow my focus towards, I believe this is a valid claim and it is something I myself wanted to address but had no evidence. The second blogpost I found is on a foreign blog called Bitacora Almendron, and the post is titled ‘Restraining Climate-Science Diversity’ ( This blog post explains how bringing together different opinions and ideas about climatology will help discover more about the earth’s climate and why it reacts the way it does.

This blog post also states a good opinion about how there so much more we do not know about the earth’s climate, but people have strong opinions like they know all there is to know:

“A careful, dispassionate look at the enormous complexity of the Earth-atmosphere system and what we think we know about it reveals that we know very little. Mountains of data have been collected on our land masses, oceans and atmosphere – thermal properties, structure, chemical composition, short- and long-term fluctuations and the like. But the integration, interpretation and confident, long-term predictive powers that might someday emerge from the data seem to be a knowledge reserved for the distant future. Nevertheless, numerous scientists and politicians speak with one voice that not only do we know enough about how the climate operates to alter its operation, but that there is a strong, even overwhelming, consensus in this supposedly confident knowledge.”

This contributes to my focus because there are a lot of politicians and governmental bodies assuming that global warming is true, yet we do not know all there is to know.

Using the different news article search engines made finding news articles a lot less painful. I found a few good articles but I’m not sure whether or not they’re academic. The first article I found was on called “The Case For Global Warming Stronger Than Ever.” I’m glad global warming is such a current topic because a lot of the articles I found were posted recently. This first article is a collection of evidence  and statistics from different climate change organizations that contribute to why global warming may indeed be true.

Although Lemonick does provide good information from reliable sources, he states a comment that rebuts his own opinion:

If that doesn’t sound definitive, it’s because, as the authors freely admit, it isn’t: climate science continues to evolve as new evidence comes in.

The second article I found contribute’s a lot towards where I want to go with my focus. The article is called “Going Green Vs. Going Broke” and its from the Los Angeles Times. It is basically about how California can’t afford the going green policies that it so much pushed for. The last article I found was from a United Kingdom Newspaper called The Sun. I know global warming is a big topic in the states but I wanted to see the perspective from other countries. According to this article its gonna cost a certain amount of money from each person in the world to go green and the wealthy countries are going to suffer the most. After reading these articles my focus has narrowed even more to global warming dealing with government and legilation.

Posted by: dompanaligan | March 10, 2010

Journal Article: Confronting Warming

When we took a class in the library about how to use the library database to find journal articles, it was the first time I have ever used the library database. I was amazed on how useful the library databases are and how many articles there were on my topic, which is global warming. After searching through a couple of databases and skimming through a few articles, i stumbled upon one article that I think will contribute a lot to my research. The database I used to find the article Confronting Warming is the CQ Researcher. The article Confronting Warming is about how global warming is affecting the way people of the world live their lives, and the many solutions being attempted to slow down global warming’s effects. The article Confronting Warming will definitely be integrated into my research because focus is more towards comparing and contrasting the views of those people who support global warming, and those that do not. This article does not neccesarily support global warming, but more of shed’s light on the actions the people of the world are taking toward trying to prevent global warming. Confronting Warming touched a little bit on how state legislation are just now taking actions towards addressing global warming.

As stated in the article Confronting Warming, Governor Pataki’s former aide Cahill gives his views on global warming and how we’ve acted too late by stating:

“We’re still very much at the embryonic stage of dealing with climate change in this country, but at the same time, the train has left the station.”

From what I know, and what is stated in the article, the Bush Administration and the Clinton Administration did nothing to the address the issue of global warming. It is just recently that states are starting to set stricter policies like air pollution control and energy consumption. In my own honest opinion, I don’t support global warming so it was easier for me to notice recent and sudden actions of different states in combating global warming. Though, the more I read into global warming, through the books I checked out, or this article that i’ve discovered, I’m starting to have a slight change of heart. There is a lot of good information out there with hard evidence and statistical data that doesn’t neccesarily prove global warming, but shows that the earth is definitely experiencing change. Another topic that about global warming that I’ve been brainstorming about, and that the article Confronting Warming touches upon, are the nations of the world ‘going green’.

As stated in the Green Building section of the Confronting Warming article, many states have recieved billions of dollars in grants to restart their building programs and make them more green:

“From 2003 to 2007, the number of citiees with green building programs gre by 418 percent, from 22 to 92, according to the AIA. By mid-2008, 14 percent of municipalities with populations of more than 50,000 had adopted such programs, with many more cities planning programs soon.”

This is the reason I am so skeptical about the actions being taken to prevent global warming. So much money is being spent to combat global warming, it makes me think and wonder if it is at all worth it. The money being spent to save on energy and renewable resources is money we can be saving to rebuild the economy. It is hard enough that our nation’s economy is in a huge hole and the government continues to fund a movement that we can only predict is happening but has not been 100 percent proven. This is great because I believe my focus is narrowing and may be more about the actions of states and the government and all the money being spent.

Posted by: dompanaligan | March 7, 2010

Books Checked Out

I ended up checking out four books from the lied library raising my count to four books i’ve ever checked out from the lied library. The four I checked out are Global Warming The Hard Science by Danny Harvey, Global Warming by Douglas Long,  Global Warming by David E. Newton, and The Carbon Footprint Wars by Stuart Sim. When looking through books I could’ve possibly checked out I initially picked out eight books and it was difficult to narrow it down to the four I ended up checking out because they all seemed like they had important information. Since I have narrowed down my focus to comparing and contrasting both arguments supporting global warming and arguments against global warming, I see myself using The Carbon Footprint Wars the most. All the other books I checked out contain similar information about global warming and some also include some important dates dealing with climate change. I feel like I’m going to use Global Warming The Hard Science the least because its mostly scientific information, but I figure I can use scientific data to support one or both opinions about global warming. The Carbon Footprint Wars is a very interesting book because it gives good insight from both sides of the global warming spectrum. It contains one chapter based completely on why global warming is true, one chapter based completely on why global warming isn’t true, and one chapter based completely on possible consequences. Although I obtained books with good and insightful information, they are all books that support global warming, so I plan on locating newspapers or online articles that discredit global warming.

Posted by: dompanaligan | March 3, 2010

Google and Google Scholar Websites/Articles is a website that gives a brief overview on what global warming is, possible ways to attain solar energy, and ways that the world can recycle. My views are against that global warming, and the ideas that this websit introduces are ideas that I’ve already heard. It is nice to know more about recycling though and how much we can save from waste.

Google Scholar-

Springer link provided me with a journal about climate change. Compared to the link i picked out through google, the climate change journal provides more of a scientific view of global warming.

Comparing the two websites, the google scholar I find will be a lot more affective when looking for specific information. The reslts are more scholarly compared to google. Google I will end up using to search for more general information to help me narrow into a set focus.

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